- Accident date
- Accident area
- Bay of Biscay
- Spill area
- Cause of spill
- Structural damage
- Product transported
- Heavy fuel oil (n°6)
- Quantity transported
- 31,000 tonnes
- Nature of pollutant
- Heavy fuel oil (n°6)
- Quantity spilled
- Between 19,000 and 20,000 tonnes
- Ship / structure type
- Oil tanker (Single hull with segregated ballast tanks)
- Built date
- Kasado Dock Co Ltd Japon
- 184 m
- 10.9 m
- Tevere Shipping (Malta)
- Total Fina
- P&I Club
- Steamship Mutual Underwriting Association
- Classification society
On 11 December 1999, the Maltese tanker, Erika, laden with 31,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil (n°6), was en route from Dunkirk (France) to Livorno (Italy) when it was caught in very rough sea conditions (westerly wind, force 8 to 9, with 6 m swell). After sending out an alert message, then proceeding to transfer cargo from tank to tank, the captain informed the French authorities that the situation was under control and that he was heading to the port of Donges, at reduced speed.
On 12 December, at 6:05 am he sent out a Mayday: the ship was breaking in two. A rescue operation was immediately launched and the crew was winched to safety by French Navy helicopters, backed up by Royal Navy reinforcements, in extremely difficult conditions. The Erika split in two at 8:15 am (local time) in international waters, some thirty nautical miles south of Penmarc'h (Southern Brittany). The quantity of oil spilt at that time was estimated at between 7,000 and 10,000 tonnes.
The bow section sank the following night, a small distance from where the ship had broken up. The stern was taken in tow by the salvage tug Abeille Flandre on 12 December, at 2:15 pm, to prevent it from drifting towards the French island of Belle-Ile. It sank the following day at 2:50 pm. The two parts of the wreck ended up 10 km apart from each other, 120 m deep.
Pollution and response at sea
The Polmar Sea Plan was activated on 12 December at 6 pm by the Maritime Prefect for the Atlantic. The following day, the French Navy placed two deep sea support vessels equipped for pollution response on stand-by, to intervene as soon as the weather conditions would allow. They also opened discussions to mobilise the resources of Bonn Agreement Member States.
Initial aerial survey missions carried out by French Customs and Navy planes reported slicks drifting at sea, one of which was 15 km long and estimated at 3,000 tonnes. The slicks were moving eastwards at a speed of about 1.2 knots. On the following days, aerial observations identified a series of slicks made up of thick patches (5 to 8 cm thick) which tended to split up while continuing to drift parallel to the coast. On 16 December, small slicks of approximately 100 m in diameter gathered in a 25 km long and 5 km wide zone. As of 17 December, they showed a tendency to sink a few centimetres underneath the sea surface.
The Biscay Plan, a bi-lateral agreement for mutual assistance between France and Spain (signed on 7 December 1999), was activated on 19 December at 4 pm.
Pollution and response on the shoreline
The first incidences of the oil on the coast were noticed in Southern Finistère 11 days after the accident, on 23 December. Scattered landings continued the following days, hitting the islands of Groix and Belle-Ile on 25 December, and the Vendée region, north of the island of Noirmoutier, on 27 December. Owing to rough weather conditions (wind over 100 km/h, blowing perpendicular to the coast) and very high tide coefficients, the pollution was thrown up very high on the foreshore, reaching the top of cliffs exceeding 10 metres.
The Polmar Land Plans for the Vendée and Charente-Maritime departments were activated on 22 December. These departments were not hit by the pollution until 27 and 31 December respectively. The Polmar Land Plan for the Loire-Atlantique department was activated on 23 December, 3 days before the oil slicks reach the shore. The Polmar Land Plans for Finistère (hit on 23 December) and Morbihan (hit on 24 December) were activated on 24 December. In total, five departments activated their Polmar Land Plan.
On 26 December, 14 days after the sinking, the island of Groix, off Lorient, was severely affected and the bulk of the pollution reached the north and south banks of the Loire River. A viscous oil layer, 5 to 30 cm thick and several metres wide, covered parts of the shoreline.
The animation created by Cedre to mark the 20th anniversary of the sinking of the Erika
- Cedre Information Day 2002, Environment friendly response : cleaning without damaging, restoring adequately, Erika examples by Loïc Kérambrun, Cedre.
- Cedre Information Day 2002, Reducing consequences on exploited natural resources : the management of shellfish farming areas in the Erika incident by Hélène Oger-Jeanneret, IFREMER
Conferences presented at Interspill 2009, and Interspill 2002
- Conferences presented at IOSC 2011 in Portland, Oregon (USA),
- Conferences presented at IOSC 2005 in Miami Beach, Florida (USA),
- Conferences presented at IOSC 2003 in Vancouver, Washington (USA),
- Conferences presented at IOSC 2001 in Tampa, Florida (USA)
ITOPF, Summary and selected bibliography.
IOPC Funds, Compensation claims.
Changes to maritime safety regulations following the Erika spill: